Here are some of my latest pieces. They are made from a punch needle centre, set in a painted, papier mȃché frame.
The punch needle embroidery is worked by punching each loop through the backing fabric using a hand tool to form a textured surface: just like making a miniature rug!
This close-up shows the reverse, 'working side' of the fabric that you punch from. There is a very clear description of the technique on Wikihow called "How To Needle Punch".